Stiff-Person Vereinigung Deutschland - Hilfe für SPS-Kranke

Stiff-Person-Syndrom - Original (in engl.) von Diana L. Hurwitz, Übersetzung: Helmut Jüngling und Christian Wolf IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


Literatur

1. Vasconcelo OM, Dalakas MC. Stiff person syndrome. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2003;5:79-90

2. Todman D. Stiff person syndrome (Moersch-Woltman Syndrome). The Internet Journal of Neurology. 2006. Volume 7 Number 1. Available from: Internet Scientific Publications. http://ispub.com/IJN/7/1/5243. Accessed May 1, 2014.

3. Andreadou E, Kattoulas E, Sfagos C, Vassilopoulos D. Stiff person syndrome: avoiding misdiagnosis. Neurol Sci. 2007;28:35.

4. Freeman JW, Xu M, Anderson S, Lindemann J. Finding our way: diagnostic perils and the stiff person syndrome. S D Med. 2009;62(9):360-1, 363.

5. Stiff-person syndrome. National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke Web site. http://www.ninds_nih.gov/disorders/stiffperson/stiffperson.htm. Updated November 15, 2010. Accessed April 29, 2014.

6. Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission. In: Beers MH, Burkow R ed. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 17th ed. West Point, PA: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999:1497.

7. Mense S. Simons DG, Russell IJ. Pain associated with increased muscle tension. In: Mense S, Simons DG ed. Muscle Pain, Understanding Its Nature, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:123.

8. Karpati G. Clinical assessment and classification. In: Hilton-Jones D, Bushby K, Griggs RC ed. In: Disorders of Voluntary Muscle, 8th ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press;2010:173.

9. Stiff-person syndrome. National Organization of Rare Disorders Web site. https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare diseases/byID/326/viewAbstract. Published 1987. Updated 2010. Accessed April 29, 2014.

10. Stiff-person syndrome. Movement Disorders Web site. http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS/About/Movement-Disorder Overviews/Stiff-Person-Syndrome.htm. Accessed April 29, 1014.

11. Helfgott SM. Stiff-man syndrome: from the bedside to the bench. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:1312.

12. Lorish TR, Thorsteinsson G. Stiff-man syndrome: updated. Mayo Clin Proc. 1989;64:629-636.

13. Barker RA, Revesz T, Thom M, Marsden CD, Brown P. Review of 23 patients affected by the stiff man syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;65:633-640.

14. Stiff person syndrome. Medlink Neurology Web site. http://www.medlink.com. Published September 2, 1994. Updated April 23, 2013. Accessed April 29, 2014.

15. Gallien P, Durufle A, Petrilli S, Verin M, Brissot R, Robineau S. Atypical low back pain: stiff-person syndrome. Joint Bone Spine. 2002;69(2):218-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12027316.

16. Wilson RK, Murinson BB. Sudden spasms following gradual lordosis - the stiff-person syndrome. Nature Clinical Practice Neurology. 2006;2:8:455 459.

17. Bastin A, Gurmin V, Mediwake R, Gibbs J, Beynon H. Stiff man syndrome presenting with low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002; 61(10): 939-940. doi: 10.1136/ard.61.10.939.

18. Stiff person syndrome. NORD Web site. http://www.rarediseases.org/rare disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/326/viewAbstract. Updated July 13, 2010. Accessed April 29, 2014.

19. Matsumoto JY, Caviness JN, McEvoy KM. The acoustic startle reflex in stiff-man syndrome. Neurology. 1994;44:1952.

20. Sandbrink F, Syed NA, Fujii MD, Dalakas MC, Floeter MK. Motor cortex excitability in stiff-person syndrome. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 11):2231-9.

21. Loder E, Stein J. Stiff person syndrome presenting with a headache. Cephalalgia. 2005;25(3):237-9. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00846.x.

22. Soykan I, McCallum RW. Gastrointestinal involvement in neurologic disorders: stiff-man and Charcot-Tooth syndromes. Am J Med Sci. 1997;313:70.

23. Rae SA, Rose PE. Powell-Jackson P. et al. A stiff-man with malabsorption. JR Soc. Med. 1988;81:1115-117.

24. Prasad V. A perplexing consult for pseudoseizures: stiff-man syndrome. J Neuropsychiatiy Clin Neurosci. 2010 Fall;22(4):451. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.22.4.451-k.e20.

25. McKeon A, Robinson MT, McEvoy KM, Matsumoto JY, et al. Stiff-man syndrome and variants, clinical course, treatments, and outcomes. Archives of Neurology. 2012;69(2):230-238. doi:10.1001/archneuro1.2011.991.

26. Steffen H, Menger N, Richter W, et al. Immune-mediated retinopathy in a patient with stiff-man syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999;237(3):212-9.

27. Ances BM, Dalmau JO, Tsai J, Hasbani MJ, Galetta SL. Downbeating nystagmus and muscle spasms in a patient with glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jul;140(1):142-4.

28. Economides JR, Horton JC. Eye movement abnormalities in stiff person syndrome. Neurology. 2005;65:1462-4.

29. Oskarsson B, Pelak V, Quan D, Hall 3, Foster C, Galetta S. Stiff eyes in stiff-person syndrome. Neurology. 2008;71;378-380. doi:10.1212/01.wn1.0000319725.22925.b4.

30. Pittock SJ, LennonVA, McKeon A. Stiff eyes in stiff-person syndrome. Neurology 2009;72;1877-1878. doi: 10.1212/01.wn1.0000346465.92949.53.

31. Berger C, Meinck HM. Head retraction reflex in stiff-man syndrome and related disorders. Mov Disord. 2003;18:906.

32. Hadavi S, Noyce AJ, Leslie RD, Giovannoni G. Stiff person syndrome. Pract Neurol. 2011 Oct;11(5):272-82. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2011-000071.

33. Brown P, Marsden CD. The stiff man and stiff man plus syndromes. JNeurol. 1999;246:648-652.

34. Meinck HM , Thompson PD. Stiff-man syndrome and related conditions. Movement Disorders Vol. No. 5. 2002;853-866.

35. Garzo C, Perez-Sotelo M, Traba A, Esteban A, Granolas F. Munoz-Blanco JL. Stiff-man syndrome in a child. Movement Disorders. 1998;13(2):365-368.

36. Goetz CG, Klawans HL. On the mechanism of sudden death in Moersch-Woltman Syndrome. Neurology. 1983;33:930-932.

37. Maccario M, Baugh JR, Mena H. Sudden death in Moersch-Woltman. Neurology. 1984;34:407.

38. Matsumoto H, Schwartzman MJ, Estes ML, et al. Sudden death and paroxysmal autonomic dysfunction in stiff-man syndrome. JNeurol. 1991;238(2):91-6.

39. Nyland H, Mellgren SI, Frovig AG. Stiff-man syndrome with central and peripheral nervous manifestations. JNeurol. 1978; 219:171-176.

40. Alexopoulos H, Dalakas MC. A critical update on the immunopathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40(11):1018-1025. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02340.x.

41. Cheramy M, Hampe CS, Ludvigsson J, Casas R. Characteristics of in vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high titre individuals. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 2012;171:247-254. doi:10.1111/CEI.12026.

42. Bhat R, Axtell R, Mitra A, Miranda M, et al. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. PNAS. 2009;107(6):2580-2585. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0915139107.

43. Gerschlager W, Schrag A, Brown P. Quality of life in stiff-person syndrome. Mov Disord. 2002;17:1064-7.

44. Sander JE, Layzer RB, Goldsobel AB. Congenital stiff-man syndrome. Ann Neural. 1980;(2):195-7.

45. Clardy SL, Lennon VA, Dalmau J, et al. Childhood onset of stiff-man syndrome. JAMA Neural. 1997;49:1591.

46. Sharma SD, Sarna A, Mukhopadhyay S. Neonatal hyperekplexia: the stiff baby syndrome. Indium Pediatr. 2006; 43(6):539-41.

47. Daras M, Spiro AJ. Stiff-man syndrome in an adolescent. Pediatrics. 1981:67:725.

48. Udani VP, Dharnidharka VR, Gajendragadkar AR. Udani SV. Sporadic stiff man syndrome in a young girl. Pediatr Neurol. 1997;17(1):58-60.

49. Murphy C, Shorten G. Train of four fade in a child with stiff baby syndrome. Paediatr Anaesth. 2000;10(5):567-9.

50. De Camilli P, Thomas A, Cofiell R, et al. Stiff-man syndrome in childhood. JR Soc Med. 2001 94:296-297.

51. Markandeyulu V, Joseph TP, Solomon T, et al. Stiff-man syndrome in childhood. JR Soc Med. 2001;94:296-297.

52. Fekete R, Jankovic J. Childhood stiff-person syndrome improved with rituximab. Case Report Neurol. 2012;4(20):92-96. doi: 10.1159/000339446.

53. Sanefuji M, Torisu H, Kira R, et al. A case of childhood stiff-person syndrome with striatal lesions: a possible entity distinct from the classical adult form. Brain Dev. 2013;35(6):575-8. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.08.003.

54. Gtirol ME, Ertas M, Hanagasi HA, Sahin HA, Gursoy G, Emre M. Stiff leg syndrome: case report. Mov Disord. 2001;16(6):1189-93.

55. Brown P, Rothwell JC, Marsden CD. The stiff leg syndrome. JNeurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;62:31-37. doi:10.1136/jnnp.62.1.31.

56. Coles A, Barker R. A case of stiff limb syndrome responsive to plasma exchange. JNeurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70:407-408. doi:10.1136/jrinp.70.3.407a.

57. Misra UK, Maurya PK, Kalita J, Gupta RK. Stiff limb syndrome: end of spectrum or a separate entity? Pain Med. 2009;10(3):594-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00578.x.

58. Hajjioui A, Benbouazza K, El Alaoui Faris M, Missaoui A, Hajjaj Hassouni N. Stiff limb syndrome: a case report. Cases Journal. 2010;3:60. doi: 10.1186/1757-1626-3-60.

59. Iwata T, Shigeto H, Ogata K, et al. Hyperexcitability restricted to the lower limb motor system in a patient with stiff-leg syndrome. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2011;18:12:1720-1722.

60. Saiz A, Graus F, Valldeoriola F, et al. Stiff-leg syndrome: A focal form of stiff-man syndrome. Annals of Neurology. 1998;43:3:400-403.

61. Fiol M, Cammarota A, Rivero A, Pardal A, Nogues M, Correale J. Focal stiff-person syndrome. Neurologia. 2001;16(2):89-91.

62. Shiraishi H, Motomura M, Iwanaga H, et al. Successful treatment in a patient with a focal form of stiff-person syndrome using plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Journal-Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2002;42(8):766-70.

63. Teive HA, Munhoz RP, Cardoso J, Amaral VC, Werneck LC. Stiff-three limbs syndrome. Mov Disord. 2009;24(2):311-2. doi: 10.1002/mds.22344.

64. Castelnovo G, Renard D, Bouly S, Labauge P. Isolated hypertrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle in the stiff leg syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2011;44(2):306. doi: 10.1002/mus.22152.

65. Chamard L, Magnin E, Berger E, Hagenkotter B, Rumbach L, Bataillard M. Stiff leg syndrome and myelitis with anti-amphiphysin antibodies: a common physiopathology? Eur Neurol. 2011;66(5):253-5. doi: 10.1159/000331592.

66. Leigh PN, Rothwell JC, Traub M, Marsden CD. A patient with reflex myoclonus and muscle rigidity: 'jerking stiff-man syndrome.' J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980;43(12):1125-1131.

67. Whitley AM, Swash M, Urich H. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity. Brain. 1976;99:27-42.

68. Espay AJ, Chen R. Rigidity and spasms from autoimmune encephalomyelopathies: stiff-person syndrome. Muscle & Nerve. 2006;34:6:677-690.

69. Rakocevic G, Raju R, Semino-Mora C, Dalakas MC. Stiff person syndrome with cerebellar disease and high-titer anti-GAD antibodies. Neurology. 2006;67(6):1068-1070. doi-10.1212/01.wn1.0000237558.83349.d0.

 


70. Gordon CR, Zivotofsky AZ, Siman-Tov T, Gadoth N. Stiff person syndrome 2007;68(14):1161; author reply 1161.

71. Espay AJ, Chen R. Rigidity and spasms from autoimmune encephalomyelopathies: stiff-person syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34(6):677 90.

72. Honnorat J, Saiz A, Giometto B, et al. Cerebellar ataxia with anti glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: study of 14 patients. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(2):225-30.

73. Gouider-Khouja N, Mekaouar A, Larnaout A, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity presenting as a stiff-person syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002;8(4):285-8.

74. Warren JD, Scott G, Blumberg PC, Thompson PD. Pathological evidence of encephalomyelitis in the stiff man syndrome with anti-GAD antibodies. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2002;9:3:328-329.

75. Turner MR, Irani SR, Leite MI, Nithi K, Vincent A, Ansorge 0. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: glycine and NMDA receptor antibodies. Neurology. 2011;77(5):439-43. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318227b176.

76. Hirsch LJ. A new encephalitis with GABA-A receptor antibodies. Lancet Neurology. 2014;13(3): 239-240. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70013-4.

77. Petit-Pedrol M, Armangue T, Peng X, et al. Encephalitis with refractory seizures, status epilepticus, and antibodies to the GABAA receptor: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and analysis of the effects of antibodies. Lancet Neurol 2014;13(3):276-86. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70299-0.

78. Hutchinson M, Waters P, McHugh J, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis, rigidity, and myoclonus: a novel glycine receptor antibody. Neurology. 2008;71:1291.

79. Schmidt C, Freilinger T, Lieb M, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus preceding otherwise asymptomatic Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Neurol Sci. 2010;291(1-2):118-20. doi: 10.1016/j jns.2009.12.025.

80. Kasparek S, Zebrowski S. Stiff-man syndrome and encephalomyelitis: report of a case. Arch Neurol. 1971;24:22-30.

81. Martinelli P, Pazzaglia P, Montagna P, et al. Stiff-man syndrome associated with nocturnal myoclonus and epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1978;41:458-462.

82. Baraba R, Jusvic' A, Sruk A. Progessive encephalomyelitis with rigidity: a case report. J Spinal Cord Med. 2010;33(1):73-76. doi: 10.1002/mds.22521.

83. Clerinx K, Breban T, Schrooten M, et al. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus: resolution after thymectomy. Neurology. 2011;76;303-304. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318207b008.

84. De Blauwe SN, Santens P, Vanopdenbosch LJ. Anti-glycine receptor antibody mediated progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus associated with breast cancer. Case Reports in Neurological Medicine. 2013; Article ID 589154:4 pages. doi: 10.1155/2013/589154.

85. Stern WM, Howard R, Chalmers RM, et al. Glycine receptor antibody mediated progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM): a rare but treatable neurological syndrome. Pract Neurol. 2014;14(2):123 7. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2013-000511.

86. Armon C, Swanson JW, McLean JM, et al. Subacute encephalomyelitis presenting as stiff-person syndrome: clinical, polygraphic, and pathologic correlations. Movement Disorders. 1996;11:6, 701-709.

87. Kullmann DM, Howard RS, Miller DH, et al. Brainstem encephalopathy with stimulus-sensitive myoclonus leading to respiratory arrest, but with recovery: a description of two cases and review of the literature. Movement Disorders. 1996;11:6:715-718. doi: 10.1002/mds.870110618.

88. Duddy ME, Baker MR. Stiff person syndrome. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2009;26:147-65. doi: 10.1159/000212375.

89. Ishii A. Stiff person syndrome and other myelopathies constitute paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Brain Nerve. 2010;62(4):377-85.

90. Bataller L, Dalmau J. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes: approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Neurologic Clinics. 2003;21(1):221-247.

91. Panzer J, Dalmau J. Movement disorders in paraneoplastic and autoimmune disease. Gun Opin Neurol. 2011;24(4):346-53. doi: 10.1097/WC0.0b013e328347b307.

92. Anderson NE, Cunningham JM, Posner JB. Autoimmune pathogenesis of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. PubMed Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 1987;3:245-299.

93. Levin KH. Paraneoplastic neuromuscular syndromes. Neurologic Clinics. 1997;15(3):597-614.

94. Rosenfeld MR, Dalmau J. The clinical spectrum and pathogenesis of paraneoplasitc disorders of the central nervous system. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. 2001;15(6):1109-1128.

95. Rees JH. Paraneoplastic syndromes: when to suspect, how to confirm, and how to manage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(Suppl doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2004.040378.

96. Honorat J, Antoine AC. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007;2: 22. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-22.

97. Dalmau J, Rosenfeld M. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes of the CNS. Lancet Neurol. 2008; 7(4): 327-340. doi: 10.1016/S 1474-4422(08)70060-7.

98. Rosenfeld MR, Dalmau J. Update on paraneoplastic neurologic disorders. The Oncologist. 2010;15:603-617.

99. McKeon A. Paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. Neurohospitalist. 2013; 3(2):53-64. doi: 10.1177/1941874412453339.

100. Burns TM. Step forward for SPS. The Lancet. 2005; 365, Issue 9468:1365- 1367. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66349-0.

101. Grant R, Graus F. Paraneoplastic movement disorders. Mov Disord. 2009;24(12):1715-24. doi: 10.1002/mds.22658.

102. McCabe DJ, Turner NC, Chao D, et al. Paraneoplastic stiff person syndrome associated with colon cancer misdiagnosed as idiopathic Parkinsons' disease worsened after capecitabine therapy. Neurology. 2004;62(8):1402-4.

103. McKeon A, Pittock SJ. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelopathies: pathology and mechanisms. Acta Neuropathologica. 2011;122(4):381-400.

104. Boronat A, Sabater L, Saiz A, Dalmau J, Graus F. GABA(B) receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis and anti-GAD-associated neurologic disorders. Neurology. 2011;76(9):795-800. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820e7b8d.

105. Folli F, Solimena M, Cofiell RA, et al. Autoantibodies to a 128-kd synaptic protein in three women with the stiff-man syndrome and breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 1993;328(8):546-551.

106. McKeon A. Pittock SJ. Lennon VA. Stiff-person syndrome with amphiphysin antibodies: distinctive features of a rare disease. Neurology. 2008;1:1955-1958.

107. Silverman IE. Paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome. JNeurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;67(1):126-7.

108. Sinnreich M, Assal F, Hefft S, et al. Anti-GAD antibodies and breast cancer in a patient with stiff-person syndrome: a puzzling association. Eur Neurol. 2001;46(1):51-2.

109. Lemieux J, Provencher L, Brunet D, Hogue JC. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, stiff person syndrome and breast carcinoma. Can JNeurol Sci. 2011;38(5):790-2.

110. Krishna VR, Knievel K, Ladha S, Sivakumar K. Lower extremity predominant stiff-person syndrome and limbic encephalitis with amphiphysin antibodies in breast cancer. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2012;14(2):72-4. doi: 10.1097/CND.0b013e31826f0d99.

111. Thümen A, Moser A. An uncommon paraneoplastic Ri-positive opsoclonus myoclonus-like syndrome and stiff-person syndrome with elevated glutamate/GABA ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid after breast cancer. JNeurol. 2010;257(7):1215-7. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5501-z.

112. McCabe DJ, Turner NC, Chao D, et al. Paraneoplastic "stiff person syndrome" with metastatic adenocarcinoma and anti-Ri antibodies. Neurology. 2004;62(8):1402-4.

113. Roobol TH, Kazzaz BA, Vecht CJ. Segmental rigidity and spinal myoclonus as a paraneoplastic syndrome. JNeurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987;50:628.

114. Dropcho EJ. Antiamphiphysin antibodies with small-cell lung carcinoma and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Ann Neurol. 1996;39:659.

115. Tanaka H, Matsumura A, Okumura M, Kitaguchi M, Yamamoto S, Iuchi K. Stiff man syndrome with thymoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(2):739-41.

116. Iwata T, Inoue K, Mizuguchi S, Morita R, Tsukioka T, Suehiro S. Thymectomy for paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome associated with invasive thymoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132(1):196-7.

117. Kidher ES, Briceno N, Taghi A, Chukwuemeka A. An interesting collection of paraneoplastic syndromes in a patient with a malignant thymoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2012; pii: bcr0220125790. doi: 10.1136/bcr.02.2012.5790.

118. Tsai T, McGrath R. Lymphoma, thymoma and the wooden man: stiff-person syndrome post-thymoma excision and non-Hodgkin lymphoma remission. Intern Med J. 2012;42(2):205-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2011.02688.x.

119. Aghajanzadeh M, Alavi A, Aghajanzadeh G, Massahania S. Stiff man syndrome with invasive thymic carcinoma. Arch Iran Med. 2013;16(3):195-6. doi: 013163/AIIVI.0016.

120. Kobayashi R, Kaji M, Horiuchi S, et al. Recurrent thymoma with stiff person syndrome and pure red blood cell aplasia. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2014; 97(5):1802-1804.

121. Nicholas AP, Chatterjee A, Arnold MM, Clausen GC, Zorn Jr G. Stiff persons' syndrome associated with thymoma and subsequent myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 1997;20:493-498.

122. Piccolo G, Martino G, Moglia A, et al. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis with thymoma following the spontaneous remission of stiff-man syndrome. Ital J. Neurol Sci. 1990;11;177.

123. Thomas S, Critchley P, Lawden M, et al. Stiff person syndrome with eye movement abnormality. myasthenia gravis, and thymoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:141-142. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.036558.

124. Hagiwara H, Enomoto-Nakatani S, Sakai K, et al. Stiff-person syndrome associated with invasive thymoma: a case report. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2001;193(1):59-62.

125. Liu YL, Lo WC, Tseng CH, Tsai CH, Yang YW. Reversible stiff person syndrome presenting as an initial symptom in a patient with colon adenocarcinoma. Acta Oncol . 2010;49(2):271-2. doi: 10.3109/02841860903443175.

126. Rakocevic G, Hussain A. Stiff person syndrome improvement with chemotherapy in a patient with cutaneous t cell lymphoma. Muscle Nerve. 2013;47: 938-939. doi: 10.1002/mus.23706.

127. Nakamura N, Fujiya S, Yahara 0, et al. Stiff-man syndrome with spinal cord lesion. Clin Neuropathol. 1986;5:40.

128. Harada H, Hayashi A, Watanabe M, Tamaoka A, Shoij S. A case of stiff man syndrome with head retraction like reflex and jerky myoclonus of bilateral lower extremities which responded well to removal of mediastinal carcinoma. Journal Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1999;39(10):1025-8.

129. Clow EC, Couban S, Grant IA. Stiff-person syndrome associated with multiple myeloma following autologous bone marrow transplantation. Muscle Nerve. 2008;38(6):1649-52. doi: 10.1002/mus.21153.

130. Ferracci F, Fassetta G, Butler MH, Floyd S, Solimena M, De Camilli P. A novel antineuronal antibody in a motor neuron syndrome associated with breast cancer. Neurology. 1999 53:852.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Eine Zusammenfassung der neueren Literatur findet sich hier:
Sarva H, Deik A, Ullah A, et al. Clinical spectrum of stiff person syndrome: a review of recent reports. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D85M65GD (Anm. d. Übers.)

 → zur Inhaltsübersicht